Sprach und kulturwissenschaften

23.04.2021 07:05
3500 year-old honeypot: oldest direct evidence for honey
are lacking. The first direct evidence of beeswax opens up fascinating perspectives for the archaeology of Africa. Until a few years ago, the social context in which these sculptures had been created was completely unknown. Another possibility is the use of clay pots as beehives, as is practised to this day in traditional African societies. Hier finden Sie das Online-Vorlesungsverzeichnis der LMU sowie die kommentierten Vorlesungsverzeichnisse der Fakultten im PDF-Format. But for sub-Saharan Africa, direct archaeological evidence has been lacking until now. Indirect clues about the significance of bees and bee products are provided by prehistoric petroglyphs on various continents, created between 8,000 and 40,000 years ago. The analysis of the chemical residues of food in potsherds has fundamentally altered the picture. Archives around the world store thousands of ceramic shards from archaeological excavations that are just waiting to reveal their secrets through gas chromatography and paint a picture of the daily life and diet of prehistoric people.

Does it perhaps also contain beeswax residues? Archaeologists typically use animal bones from excavations to answer these questions. Die Veranstaltungsbersichten wurden zum Stichtag.9.2020 aus LSF heraus erzeugt. That honey was part of their daily menu was completely unexpected, and unique in the early history of Africa until now. These sculptures represent the oldest figurative art in Africa. A third of the examined shards contained high-molecular lipids, typical for beeswax.

Honey-collecting in prehistoric West Africa from 3500 years ago. Professor Katharina Neumann, who is in charge of archaeobotany in the Nok project at Goethe University says: Plant and animal residues from archaeological excavations reflect only a small section of what prehistoric people ate. Dr Julie Dunne from the University of Bristol, first author of the study says: This is a remarkable example for how biomolecular information from prehistoric pottery in combination with ethnographic data provides insight into the use of honey 3500 years ago. Ancient Egyptian reliefs indicate the practice of beekeeping as early as 2600 year BCE. The chemical residues make previously invisible components of the prehistoric diet visible. Archaeologists at Goethe University in cooperation with chemists at the University of Bristol were able to identify beeswax residues in 3500 year-old potsherds of the Nok culture. We began this study with our colleagues in Bristol because we wanted to know if the Nok people had domesticated animals, explains Professor Peter Breunig from Goethe University, who is the director of the archaeological Nok project. Archaeologists at Goethe University in cooperation with chemists at the University of Bristol have now produced the oldest direct evidence of honey collecting of in Africa. But it is also conceivable that honey was processed together with other raw materials from animals or plants, or that they made mead.

This is because the processing of plant and animal products in clay pots releases stable chemical compounds, especially fatty acids (lipids). But what to do if the soil is so acidic that bones are not preserved, as is the case in the Nok region? Publication: Julie Dunne, Alexa Hhn, Gabriele Franke, Katharina Neumann, Peter Breunig, Toby Gillard, Caitlin Walton-Doyle, Richard. Before sugar cane and sugar beets conquered the world, honey was the worldwide most important natural product for sweetening. In a project funded by the German Research Foundation, Goethe University scientists have been studying the Nok culture in all its archaeological facets for over twelve years.

There is one creature in particular that they had not expected: the honeybee. In addition to settlement pattern, chronology and meaning of the terracotta sculptures, the research also focussed on environment, subsistence and diet. Honey is humankinds oldest sweetener and for thousands of years it was also the only one. They used chemical food residues in potsherds found in Nigeria. To the researchers great surprise, they found numerous other components besides the remains of wild animals, significantly expanding the previously known spectrum of animals and plants used. Neumann: We assume that the use of honey in Africa has a very long tradition. The oldest pottery on the continent is about 11,000 years old. The wax itself could have served technical or medical purposes.

Most probably they separated the honey from the waxy combs by heating them in the pots. Did the people of the Nok Culture have domesticated animals or were they hunters? The Nok culture in central Nigeria dates between 1500 BCE and the beginning of the Common Era and is known particularly for its elaborate terracotta sculptures. It is not possible to reconstruct from the lipids which bee products were used by the people of the Nok culture. Traces of beeswax were detected in 3500 year-old clay pots like this (photo: Peter Breunig, Goethe University Frankfurt).

Professor Richard Evershed, Head of the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Bristol and co-author of the study points out that the special relationship between humans and honeybees was already known in antiquity. The analysis of molecular food residues in pottery opens up new possibilities. These can be preserved in the pores of the vessel walls for thousands of years, and can be detected with the assistance of gas chromatography.

Facebook Twitter Google Pinterest LinkedIn. This is the news channel for the latest information from science and research at Goethe University. Aktuelles aus der Goethe-Uni. Fakultt fr Kulturwissenschaften (PDF,.250 KB) Fakultt fr Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften (PDF,.562 KB) Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultt (PDF, 951 KB) Fakultt fr Mathematik, Informatik und Statistik (PDF, 243 KB) Fakultt fr Physik (PDF, 518 KB) Fakultt fr Chemie und Pharmazie (PDF, 362 KB). Das Institut verliert mit Jrg Meyer zur Capellen einen hoch geschtzten Forscher, beliebten Lehrer und sehr angenehmen Kollegen. Weiterbildungen, betriebswirtschaftslehre ist einer der meistgewhlten Studiengnge in Deutschland. Nutzfahrzeugtypen, grob lassen sich Nutzfahrzeuge unterteilen in solche fr den Personentransport, die Lastenbefrderung oder das Fahrzeug selbst kann Arbeiten erledigen. But the discovery of beeswax residues in Nok pottery allows a very unique insight into this relationship, when all other sources of evidence are lacking. 5 Hauptartikel: kologieorientierte Betriebswirtschaftslehre Die betriebliche Umweltkonomie untersucht die Auswirkungen zwischen der Umweltbelastung eines Unternehmens und seinem wirtschaftlichen Erfolg. Externe Effekte laufen zum Teil an den regulren Mrkten vorbei und sind nicht in die Preissignale integriert (internalisiert).

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1972 wurde er mit einer Arbeit ber den venezianischen Maler Andrea Previtali promoviert. Welche Inhalte hat ein Pharmazie-Studium? The chemical residues make previously invisible components of the prehistoric diet visible. Ein idealer Arbeitsplatz sollte gut beleuchtet und frei von Ablenkungen (Schreibtisch aufrumen! Was ist eigentlich "Betriebswirtschaftslehre"? Wie wre es mit einer Extraportion Sonnenschein, bei der ihr das Angenehme auch noch mit dem Ntzlichen verbinden knnt? Jrg Meyer zur Capellens Forschungsinteressen waren breit gefchert.

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